The chemical symbol for Osmium is Os. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. Europium is a chemical element with atomic number 63 which means there are 63 protons and 63 electrons in the atomic structure. Nitrogen is used as a coolant or refrigerant and used for cryopreservation purposes of biological tissues, cells and blood. Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Plutonium is a chemical element with atomic number 94 which means there are 94 protons and 94 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Iron is Fe. Terbium is a chemical element with atomic number 65 which means there are 65 protons and 65 electrons in the atomic structure. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Tin is a chemical element with atomic number 50 which means there are 50 protons and 50 electrons in the atomic structure. is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Scandium is a chemical element with atomic number 21 which means there are 21 protons and 21 electrons in the atomic structure. Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation. All of the alkali metals have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, which combines with anions to form salts. The atmosphere contains more than 78 percent of nitrogen. Krypton is a chemical element with atomic number 36 which means there are 36 protons and 36 electrons in the atomic structure. Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring element on the Earth’s crust. The outer orbital of a nitrogen atom, the p2 orbital, can carry up to six electrons, just like all other p orbitals. Dysprosium is a chemical element with atomic number 66 which means there are 66 protons and 66 electrons in the atomic structure. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth’s crust. Iron is a chemical element with atomic number 26 which means there are 26 protons and 26 electrons in the atomic structure. Cerium is a soft, ductile and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Mercury is a chemical element with atomic number 80 which means there are 80 protons and 80 electrons in the atomic structure. Titanium is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. The chemical symbol for Gallium is Ga. Gallium has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide. The chemical symbol for Niobium is Nb. Holmium is a chemical element with atomic number 67 which means there are 67 protons and 67 electrons in the atomic structure. Nitrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 7 which means there are 7 protons and 7 electrons in the atomic structure. Aluminium is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group. The chemical symbol for Einsteinium is Es. The name samarium is after the mineral samarskite from which it was isolated. All of its isotopes are radioactive. When reacting with other chemicals, it will often try to take electrons from other atoms/ions to get a full octet. 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