Figure 3. (1) This femur of an adult cave bear (U. s. eremus) from the Große Teufels Cave, Germany (PO collection), is the best proof for the hyena tooth mark and damage origin, where two diagonal tooth marks (i.e. Finally, some flakes and refitted cub femora, both with tooth mark holes, prove the bone cracking activities at cave sites. Rezultati računalniske tomografije najstarejše domnevne piščali iz Divjih bab I (Slovenija): prispevek k teoriji luknjanja kosti. prey storage den type). Puncture holes are produced by canines (in cranium), whereas the breakage of the left mandible is the result of hyena premolar cracking teeth. And there's a scientist nearby to record the shame for all the world to see. These predators specialized in consuming mainly (and especially in winter times during cave bear hibernation) cave bears in boreal forest mountain regions, but in different ways and with different impact on the carcasses and bone destruction (cf. Aurignacian/Gravettian times) used caves all over Europe for cub raising and hibernation. All the large carnivore punctured cave bear cub femora (and other punctured bones) appear always in small to large cave bear den cave/cave entrance contexts. Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Such bone fragments, here compiled for the Perick Caves (figure 4), do not expose any puncture marks of the premolars, generally, because the bone breaks are within the crushing triangle, and not by a puncture hole. Pseudo ‘Neanderthal bone flutes’ of different aged cave bear (U. s. subsp. Like the bone flute discovered in Slovenia last year, the 50,000-year-old tuba predates the presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe. ", Budding naturalist and bird nerd, Ian holds the digital fort at Earth Touch. [32–38]) or were fighting for pro-arguments (e.g. Stages of cave bear femur destruction by Ice Age spotted hyena. Sometimes, cave bear femora show smaller round–oval tooth marks, or on the shaft ends only half of the puncture mark is on the margin (e.g. In total, holes are ventral (7×), dorsal (3×) and in five cases on both sides.  was incorrectly presented, using only one lower jaw premolar, although the bone crushing triangle consists of three teeth (figure 2). Instead, stone tool caused curved cut marks were found on a single cave bear femur (U. ingressus) from the latest Late Pleistocene (MIS3 cave bear layers, also Aurignacian period) of Hermann's Cave (cf. (13–14) Cub and adult calcanei from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany (all PAL collection). bone crushing teeth) for access to the bone marrow and easier swallowing of those pieces for the bone collagen use. Some actualistic proof for the non-use of the canines can also be found in modern brown bear U. a. arctos prey taphonomy studies, where those did not crush any longbones on ungulate carcasses, whereas those might puncture softer spongiosa parts with their canines . The only absolute date was made solely on a cave bear bone, the ‘bone flute’, whose age would date into the Neanderthal or ‘cave bear den’ time period. The Late Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) population from the Zoolithen Cave at Gailenreuth (Bavaria, South Germany)—a hyena cub rising den of specialized cave bear scavengers in Boreal Forest environments of Central Europe. Figure 2. The bone crusher of longbones was only the Ice Age spotted hyena, which produced round/oval puncture marks on cave bear cub bones by the bone crushing premolar teeth, i.e. Finally, also X-rays of the ‘bone flute’ hole margins did not verify any ‘drilling’ nor any stone tool work on the bone (cf. Puncture holes are produced by canines (in cranium), whereas the breakage of the left mandible is the result of hyena premolar cracking teeth. In this contribution, not only sole carnivore damage can be demonstrated on all previously published ‘pseudo-bone flutes’, which were already revised in some cases [4,16] (figure 2). [39,40]). Die Höhlenbärenreste aus der Sammlung Groß aus der Uschowa Höhle (Potočka Zijalka, Slowenien). (2) Femur from Keppler Cave, Germany (photos adapted from ; SMM collection). Critique de l'appréciation archéologique du spécimen no. definitions and discussions in [4,14,18–20,20,21,54,74]. In two cases, old breakages are demonstrated on refitted femur shafts of cubs (figure 6(10–11)), and one subadult/adult shaft (figure 7(5)); in all cases the fragments have even different colours and were embedded after crushing in different sediment types/layers. The study, authored by paleobiologist Cajus Diedrich and published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, examined prehistoric animal remains and bone breakage patterns in 15 cave locations in an effort to put the longstanding flute debate to rest. These are not present on the bone shafts, as fang teeth of hyenas (or any other carnivore) are never used to crack longbones (e.g. In a first stage, one of the joints (damage stage 1), and in a second step (damage stage 2) the other joint was cut off using the scissor-dentition on very small-sized femora (figure 5(1)), which becomes more diagonal (i.e. (7) Many selected femur fragments of subadult to adult cave bears (U. s. eremus and U. s. [3,12–16–22,51,54,55]). The five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and is made from a vulture wing bone. diagonal cut) with increasing femur sizes (figures 5–7). (7–11) Cub tibiae from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, Germany. (a) Dorsal, (b) lateral, (c) detail of tooth mark hole (GTCP collection). Ignoring the top predator bone damage on Ice Age animal bones, again the pseudo-bone flute was not only ‘confirmed’, even more bone flute finds were added by the same Slovenian author (cf. In a world bursting with news, nature is our niche – and we love it that way. German sites are Hermann's Cave, Perick Caves, especially a large population of small (Ursus spelaeus eremus) and large cave bears (Ursus ingressus) and large amount of material in different destruction stages from the Weiße Kuhle Cave, but also some relevant bones from the den sites Keppler Cave, Zoolithen Cave, Sophie's Cave, Große Teufels Cave and the Czech Sloup Cave. Therefore, there is no evidence for a Neanderthal (Mousterian) context and the cave bear remains, which even occur in several older and younger Late Pleistocene layers (cf.  that lack carnivore ecology knowledge, especially in tooth and jaw function of top predators. punctured cave bear cub femora), and overlap of Late Palaeolithic Aurignacian camp sites at the cave entrances, or cave bear hunt signs deep in caves. Subadult cave bear femora initially flaked (femur from Hermann's Cave, Germany). By B. Bower. Once thought to be the earliest musical instruments, bone artifacts called “Neanderthal flutes” were actually the work of scavenging hyenas, a new study says. impact circles, cf. Studied and from literature compiled cave bear, hyena, wolf den sites with pseudo-bone flutes (i.e. details in ). The amount of bone material is still not enough to present clear statistics. Found by archeologist Ivan Turk in a Neanderthal campsite at Divje Babe in northwestern Slovenia, this instrument (above) is estimated to be over 43,000 years old and perhaps as much as 80,000 years old. These instruments are easy to play. The Neanderthal, a species of the genus Homo, was a near relative of our own species.Its scientific name is Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.. Neanderthal fossils were only found in Europe, Asia Minor and up to central Asia.The first fossil was found in a limestone quarry near Düsseldorf: One of the workers found part of a skeleton, in a valley called Neanderthal.Experts Johann … Another juvenile bear cub femur with holes from Divje Babe I Cave, Slovenia, a small cave bear den (cf. Figure 4. Cave bear scavenging models in larger cave bear den caves (here Zoolithen Cave, Germany) for all three top predators that hunted, killed and scavenged on cave bears all over Europe within caves in boreal forest palaeoenvironments. All herein figured cub femora have, different from drill-holes, distinct characters (figures 5–7): (a) the holes are not fully round, instead oval-shaped, and beside the hole (see also ) a breakage-arch indicates an ‘impact’, rather than drilling (cf. (4) Shaft from the Oase Cave, Romania, cranial (IR collection). Cave bear at the Divje Babe I site: taphonomic-stratigraphics analysis. figure 2). Neanderthal flute from Divje Babe I: old and new findings. The ‘bear’ essentials: actualistic reserach on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for palaeontology and archaeology, The sound paradox. The incorrect biomechanical illustration of the hyena teeth and jaw function leads to incorrect interpretations of hyenas as possible producers (cf. Deutschland ) ( nearly conical cross section ) cracks because of pressure on three sides ( triangle! 'S a Scientist nearby to record the shame for all the world s... 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