[12] With this school of thought, it is asserted that the alphabet was created by Irish scholars or druids for political, military or religious reasons to provide a secret means of communication in opposition to the authorities of Roman Britain. Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.Irish missionaries took the script to continental Europe, where they founded monasteries such as Bobbio.The scripts were also used in monasteries like Fulda, which were influenced by English missionaries. The second main school of thought, put forward by scholars such as McManus,[14] is that ogham was invented by the first Christian communities in early Ireland, out of a desire to have a unique alphabet for writing short messages and inscriptions in the Irish language. Pronunciation : case sensitive: see the pronunciation key for a guide on how to write the sounds; sounds can only be searched in names that have been assigned pronunciations * is a wildcard that will match zero or more letters in the pronunciation example: *lee matches names which end with the sound lee _ is a wildcard that will match exactly one letter in the pronunciation ogham, from O.Ir. The other names have a variety of meanings, which are set out in the list below. Classical Scythians dominated the Pontic steppe from about the 7th century BC up until the 3rd century BC. Graves proposed that the ogham alphabet encoded a set of beliefs originating in the Middle-east in Stone Age times, concerning the ceremonies surrounding the worship of the Moon-goddess in her various forms. The main use of ogham by modern Druids, Neo-Pagans is for the purpose of divination. 7. 9. The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, was an ancient Indian script used in ancient Gandhara (now Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan), a Mahajanapada of ancient India, to write Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit. Of the forfeda, four are glossed by the Auraicept: The fifth letter is Emancholl which means 'twin of hazel'. [24] At some early stage these teachings were encoded in alphabet form by poets in order to pass on their worship of the goddess (as the muse and inspiration of all poets) in a secret fashion, understandable only to initiates. The alphabet consisted of 20 letters made from one to five parallel grooves or notches cut across a vertical line, usually the edge of… …   Encyclopedia of medieval literature, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. One explanation is that the word nin which literally means 'a forked branch' was also regularly used to mean a written letter in general. From that point Wales became a legal unit in its own right, although it remains part of the single jurisdiction of England and Wales. Oghamique Page du Livre de Ballymote …   Wikipédia en Français, ogham — (ogam)    Ogham (called beithe luis nin by the Irish) is an ancient Celtic alphabet used for writing in Irish. They were first discussed in modern times by Roderic O'Flaherty (1685), who took them at face value. A period of writing on wood or other perishable material prior to the preserved monumental inscriptions needs to be assumed, sufficient for the loss of the phonemes represented by úath ("H") and straif ("Z"), as well as the velar nasal, gétal, all of which are clearly part of the system, but unattested in inscriptions. [23] The language of the inscriptions is predominantly Primitive Irish, apart from the few examples in Scotland, such as the Lunnasting stone, which record fragments of what is probably the Pictish language. The first message written in Ogam were seven b's on a birch, sent as a warning to Lug mac Elathan, meaning: "your wife will be carried away seven times to the otherworld unless the birch protects her". A particular kind of writing practiced by the ancient Irish, and found in inscriptions on stones, metals, etc. There is a curious Ogham stone, found in a local farm, in the church. Its origin is probably due to the letters themselves being called feda "trees", or nin "forking branches" due to their shape. The Arabic alphabet has 28 basic letters.Adaptations of the Arabic script for other languages, such as Persian, Ottoman, Sindhi, Urdu, Malay or Pashto, Arabi Malayalam, have additional letters, shown below.There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms.. The Healer’s Hand, also known as the Shaman’s Hand, is an ancient symbol of healing and protection.The image consists of a hand with a spiral palm and it is believed to have come from the Native American solar hieroglyphs that have been found in a number of places in the south-western part of the United States.. [28], Some Neopagans and other interested people use ogham as a divination system, in a manner reminiscent of the incomplete description in Tochmarc Étaíne. [30] Some reconstructionists of Druidic ways use Briatharogam kennings as a basis for divinatory meanings in ogham divination. ogam, said to be from name of its inventor, Ogma Mac Eladan. [citation needed] The Roman Empire, which then ruled over neighbouring southern Britain, represented a very real threat of invasion to Ireland, which may have acted as a spur to the creation of the alphabet. Scholars such as Carney and MacNeill have suggested that ogham was first created as a cryptic alphabet, designed by the Irish so as not to be understood by those with a knowledge of the Latin alphabet. (L ogham consiste en un jeu d entailles pratiquées sur ou à partir d une arête de la pierre : chacune des vingt… …   Encyclopédie Universelle, Ogham —   [ oːgam; nach dem mythischen Ogma, der nach keltischer Tradition diese Schrift erfunden haben soll], Oghamschrift, Buchstabenschrift der ältesten irischen Sprachdenkmäler (4. [7] Although the use of "classical" ogham in stone inscriptions seems to have flowered in the 5th–6th centuries around the Irish Sea, from the phonological evidence it is clear that the alphabet predates the 5th century. The argument is that the sounds of Primitive Irish were regarded as difficult to transcribe into the Latin alphabet, so the invention of a separate alphabet was deemed appropriate. A variation on both theories is that the alphabet was first invented, for whatever reason, in 4th century Irish settlements in west Wales after contact and intermarriage with Romanized Britons with a knowledge of the Latin alphabet. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English, Ogham — Ogham, s. Ogam …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Ogham — (kelt. rather than: "Ich kann Glas essen, ohne mir weh zu tun." [citation needed] Alternatively, in later centuries when the threat of invasion had receded and the Irish were themselves invading the western parts of Britain, the desire to keep communications secret from Romans or Romanised Britons would still have provided an incentive. The more ancient examples are standing stones, where the script was carved into the edge (droim or faobhar) of the stone, which formed the stemline against which individual characters are cut. Even the Younger Futhark are introduced as a kind of "Viking ogham" (nrs. 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